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作者:    文章来源:    点击数:5009    更新时间:2003/9/15    
当前常用政治术语的英文翻译
作者:    文章来源:    点击数:5009    更新时间:2003/9/15

[提要]:当前常用政治术语的英文翻译
 

 

当前常用政治术语的英文翻译

 

  马列主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、江泽民“三个代表”重要思想Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiao-ping Theory, Jiang Zemin “Three Represent’s” important Thought

  新民主主义革命new-democratic revolution

  民族独立和人民解放national independence and the liberation of the people

  经济体制改革和政治体制改革reforms in the economic and political structure

  社会主义制度socialist system

  社会变革social transformation

  建设有中国特色的社会主义事业the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics

  中华民族的伟大复兴the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation

  党在社会主义初级阶段的基本理论、基本路线、基本纲领the basic theory, line and program of our Party in the primary stage of socialism

  改革开放政策the policies of reform and opening to the outside

  中国共产党十一届三中全会The Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

  马克思主义政党Marxist political Party

  党的第一(第二、第三)代中央领导集体the collective leadership of the Party Central Committee of the first (second
third)generation

  人民民主专政the people’s democratic dictatorship

  国民经济体系national economic system

  综合国力aggregate national strength

  国内生产总值the annual gross domestic product(GDP)

  独立自主的和平外交政策an independent foreign policy of peace

  马克思主义基本原理同中国具体实际相结合the fundamental principles of Marxism with the specific situation in China

  加强和改进党的建设,不断增强党的创造力、凝聚力和战斗力,永葆党的生机与活力strengthen and improve Party building, continuously enhance the creativity, rallying power and combat capability of the Party, and always maintain its vigor and vitality

  “三个代表”就是必须代表中国先进生产力的发展要求,代表中国先进文化的前进方向,代表中国最广大人民的根本利益,是我们党的立党之本、执政之基、力量之源,是我们党始终站在时代前列,保持先进性的根本体现和根本要求。 “Three Represent’s” shows that our Party must always represent the requirements of the development of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of the development of China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China, they are the foundation for building the Party, the cornerstone for its exercise of state power and a source of its strengthen,only by doing so can we really ensure that our Party always stand in the forefront of the time and maintain its advanced nature

  党的理论、路线、纲领、方针、政策Party’s theory, line, program, principles and policies

  工人阶级的先锋队 the vanguard of the working class

  生产力、生产关系、经济基础、上层建筑 productive force, relation of production, economic base, superstructure constitute

  科学技术是第一生产力science and technology are the primary productive force

  社会主义物质文明和精神文明material and spiritual civilizations of socialism

  有理想、有道德、有文化、有纪律的公民citizens with lofty ideals, moral integrity, better education and good sense of discipline

  自立意识、竞争意识、效率意识、民主法制意识和开拓创新意识self-reliance, competition, efficiency, democracy, the legal system, and the pioneering and innovative spirit

  依法治国和以德治国 the rule of law and the rule of virtue

  科教兴国战略the strategy of invigorating the country through science and education

  倡导爱国主义、集体主义、社会主义思想,反对和抵制拜金主义、享乐主义、极端个人主义等腐朽思想advocate patriotism, collectivism and socialism, combat and resist money worship, hedonism, ultra-egoism decadent ideas

  先天下之忧而忧,后天下之乐而乐be concern about the country and the people before anything else

  全心全意为人民服务、立党为公、执政为民serve the people heart and soul, work for the public and assumes power for the people

  解放思想、实事求是emancipating the mind, seeking truth from the facts

  主观主义、形而上学subjectivism, metaphysics

  民主集中制、党内民主democratic centralism, inner-Party democracy
集体领导、民主集中、个别酝酿、会议决定collective leadership, democratic centralism, case-specific consultation, decision through meeting

  政治路线确定之后,干部就是决定因素cardres are a decisive factor, once a political line is decided

  党管干部的原则the principle of the Party assuming the responsibility for cardres’ affairs

  公开、平等、竞争、择优open, fair, competition, basis of merits

  公开选拔、竞争上岗the supervision of appointment and promotion of officials, and the method for official performance assessment

  自重、自省、自警、自励self-discipline, self-examination, self-caution and self-motivation

  以权谋私、贪赃枉法、腐败分子to abuse power for personal gains, take bribes or bend the law, corrupt elements

  小康社会、小康生活well-to-do society, well-to-do life

  四项基本原则Four Cardinal Principles

  社会主义初级阶段the primary stage of socialism

  “政治合格、军事过硬、作风优良、纪律严明、保障有力” “gualified politically and competent militarily and that have a fine style of work, strict discipline and adequate logistic support”

  “台独”taiwan’s “independence”

  和平与发展peace and development

  冷战cold war

  世界多极化、经济全球化world multi-polarization and economic globalization

  联合国宪章UN Charter

  独立自主、完全平等、相互尊重、互不干涉内部事务independence, completely equality, mutual respect and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs
Cooperation

  世贸中心World Trade Center

  恐怖主义terrorism

  国际商务英语常用词汇:


  同质市场homogeneous market
  

  异质市场heterogeneous market
  

  国际市场细分international market segmentation

  宏观细分macro segmentation

  微观细分micro segmentation

  可衡量性measurability

  可接近性accessibility

  足量性substantiality

  可实施性actionability

  目标营销target marketing

  无差异营销策略undifferentiated marketing strategy

  差异营销策略differentiated marketing strategy

  集中性营销策略concentrated marketing strategy

  市场调研market research

  营销调研marketing research

  营销信息系统marketing information system

  粮食与农业组织Food and Agriculture Organization FAO)

  经济合作与发展组织(Organization for Economic Coorporation & Development OECD)

  联合国贸易和发展会议United Nations Conference on Trade and Development UNCTAD)

  联合国经济委员会United Nations Economic Commissions UNEC)

  国际货币基金International Monetaty Fund IMF

  公司发起人promoter

  上市公司public company

  组织大纲memorandum of association, article of incorporation

  招股书prospectus

  公司登记证书certificate of incorporation

  股份与股票share and stock

  记名股与无记名股registered stock, stock to bearer

  普通股common stock

  优先股preferred stock

  回收股treasury stock

  公司债与公司债券debentures and bonds

  信用credit

  股东大会general meeting

  股东特别大会special meeting

  法定人数quorum

  委托书proxy

  受托人与代理人trustee and agent

  委托人principal

  红利interest

  公积金funds

  解散与清算dissolution and liquidation

  清算人liquidator

  解散程序(结业)winding up

  公司的合并merger, amalgamation

  流通证券negotiable instrument

  流通转让negotiation

  债权让与assignment

  汇票法bills of exchang

  出票人、手款人、付款人drawer, payee, drawee

  提示、承兑、付款、拒付、追述权presetment, acceptance, payment, dishonour, recourse

  汇票的背书endorsement

  背书人endorsee

  记名背书、空白背书special endorsement, black endorsement

  限制转让的背书restrictive endorsement

  限制背书人责任的背书qualified endorsement

  附有条件的背书conditional endorsement

  本票promissory note

  支票撤回countermand

  责任法Product Liability Law

  疏忽说、违反担保说、严格责任说theory of negligence, breach of warranty, strict liability

  无过失责任strict liability in tort

  担保的排除或限制disclaimer or limitation of warranties

  自担风险assumption of the risks

  非正常使用或误用、滥用产品unnormar of misuse or abuse of the product

  擅自改动产品subsequent alteration

  自主性交易、事前交易、调节性交易、事后交易、弥补性交易autonomous transaction, ex-anto transaction, accommodating transaction, ex-post transaction, compensation transaction

  周期性不平衡cyclical disequilibrium

  结构性不平衡structural disequilibrium

  货币性不平衡monetary disequilibrium

  持久性不平衡secuiar disequilibrium

  利息平衡税interest equalization tax

  货币政策monetary policy

  贴现政策discount policy

  准备金比率rate of reserve requirement

  外汇政策foreign exchange policy

  外汇平准基金foreign exchange equilibrium fund

  外汇储备foreign exchange reserve

  直接管制direct control

  债务危机debt crisis

  弹性分析理论the theory of easticities approach

  吸收分析理论the theory of absorption approach

  货币分析理论the theory of monetary approach

  外汇风险foreign exchange exposure

  交易风险transaction exposure

  会计风险accounting exposure

  经济风险economic exposure

  综合货币单位composite currency

  国际资金市场international capital market

  货币市场monery market

  资本市场capital market

  欧洲货币市场Euro-Currency Market

  欧洲美元市场Euro-Dollar Market

  离岸金融中心offshore center

  功能中心functional center

  国际银行设施International Banking Facilities

  基金中心funding center

  管理费、代理费、杂费、承担费management fees, agent fees, out of pocket expenses, commitment fees

  利息期interest period

  信贷风险coverage of credit risks

  商业参考利率commercial interest reference rate

  形式发票froforma invoice

  保函guarantee letter

  本票promissory notes

  国际货币基金组织International Monetary Fund---IMF

  世界银行International Bank for Reconstraction and Development---IBRD

  缔约方constructing parties

  世界贸易组织、关贸总协定World Trade Organization
The General Agreement of Tariff and Trade

  亚太经合组织Asia Pacific Economic部长会议The Ministerial Conference总理事会The General Council

  理事会、货物贸易理事会、服务贸易理事会、知识产权理事会Council, Goods Council, Service Council, TRIPs Council

  秘书处The Secretariat

  总干事Director-general

  常用法学词汇的英文翻译:

  案件、案卷、案例法、案情case, archives, case law, details of a case

  暗杀assassinate

  罢免权right of recall

  白皮书white book(white paper)

  颁布法律权power to promulgate

  办案、办案人员deal with a legal case, people handling a case

  帮教对象target of help and education

  绑匪、绑架勒索罪kidnapper, crime of kidnapper for ranson

  包办婚姻arranged marriage

  包庇罪crime of harboring criminals


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